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Osceola Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo osceola) – A Wild Turkey Profile

Osceola Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo osceola) – A Wild Turkey Profile

  • Can only be found (and hunted) in Florida
  • One of the most limited ranges of all the turkey subspecies
  • Estimates place the population at approximately 100,000
  • General seasons range from March 6th to April 25, 2021
  • Males usually weigh between 15 to 20 pounds
  • Females weigh 8 to 12 pounds on average
  • Smaller and darker than the Eastern subspecies
  • Males have iridescent green and red hues on their feathers
  • Typically has a shorter beard than the Eastern subspecies
An Osceola wild turkey walking in a swamp.

Osceolas are native to the Florida peninsula and offer unique hunting opportunities

In 1804, the son of a Creek woman and a white man was born in Talisi (now Tallassee, Alabama). This multiracial child was born with the name Billy Powell, but little did he know he would grow up to be the famous Seminole Chief Osceola, the namesake of Florida’s native wild turkey subspecies.

Chief Osceola grew up as a typical Creek kid would due to his mother Polly’s matrilineal kinship system. “In 1814, after the Red Stick Creek were defeated by United States forces, Polly took Osceola and moved with other Creek refugees from Alabama to Florida, where they joined the Seminole,” according to the Native Heritage Project. “In adulthood, as part of the Seminole, Powell was given his name Osceola.” The name “Osceola” is an anglicized version of the Creek words for both a ceremonial black drink made from yaupon holly and the word for “shouter”: “Asi-yahola.”

Chief Osceola of the Seminoles
Drawing from the book Osceola Chief of the Seminoles (1899)

“Though he was never a Tribal leader, his skill and charisma quickly made him the most famous Seminole outside the Tribe,” says the Seminole Tribe of Florida. He would go on to be a leader for the Seminoles and, after years of war, battles, imprisonments, and other struggles, died of quinsy on January 30, 1838, three months after he was captured by General Thomas Jesup. Fast forward to 1890, and ornithologist W. E. B. Scott named the Floridian subspecies of wild turkey after the famous leader.

Known for their difficulty to hunt and long spurs, the Osceola wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo osceola), also known as the Florida turkey, is one of five subspecies of wild turkey. Osceolas only occur on the Florida peninsula. Since Osceolas have such a limited geographic range, they are a challenging yet popular game bird for many hunters to pursue.

Osceola Wild Turkey Physical Description

The Osceola wild turkey subspecies is smaller and darker than the highly familiar eastern subspecies. On average, males usually weigh between 15 to 20 pounds, and females weigh eight to 12 pounds. Males have iridescent green and red hues on their feathers; they are not as bronze as the eastern subspecies. Females have a dull feather finish. They can also be distinguished from the eastern wild turkey by their dark brown tail feather tips and wing bars and primary feathers consisting of more black than white. The Osceola turkey typically has a shorter beard than the eastern wild turkey but has very long spurs. The caruncles (wattles) on gobbler heads are red-colored throughout the year but may also contain intense shades of blue and white during the breeding season. Females usually have bluish-gray heads and typically do not have a beard, although bearded hens are not unheard of.

Osceola Wild Turkey Life History

The Osceola breeding season runs from January to May in southern Florida. Males start gobbling and strutting for females at the beginning of the breeding season. The Osceola is known to be a loud gobbler. Osceolas may interbreed with eastern turkeys where their ranges overlap. Hens scratch a depression into the ground to build their nest in March or April and lay nine to 11 eggs. After 25 to 26 days of incubation, the poults hatch and immediately follow the hen. After two weeks of feeding themselves and building their flight muscles, they can roost safely off the ground.

Poults transition to their adult diet of seeds, fruits, leaves, acorns, insects, and small reptiles as the summer turns into fall. Though turkeys spend their day foraging on the ground for these foods, they usually fly up into open-limbed mature trees to roost for the night. This keeps them safe from ground predators, which include bobcats, foxes, coyotes, and snakes.

A flock of Osceola turkeys

Osceola Wild Turkey Habitat

As mentioned, the Osceola turkey has one of the most limited ranges of all the turkey subspecies, occurring only on the Florida peninsula. The eastern turkey overlaps some of this range on the Florida panhandle and the Florida-Georgia line.

Generally, turkeys require a few different habitat types throughout the changing seasons to thrive. Nesting cover consists of vegetation about three feet in height. In Florida, this includes saw palmetto, old fields, pastures, and under fallen trees. These areas provide cover for the hen as she incubates her eggs. After the poults have hatched, hens seek out shorter vegetation like grassy openings and short hayfields with ample insects for forage and where the hen can spot approaching predators. Preferred roost trees for adults include cypress or pine trees with open limbs near water sources. Fall and winter habitat includes hardwood hammocks, bottomland hardwoods, wooded swamps, cypress woods, and mixed pine-hardwood habitats.

Osceola Wild Turkey Conservation

Estimates place the Osceola turkey population at approximately 100,000 individuals in Florida. However, it is difficult to get an accurate estimate due to the secretive nature of the species and the dense vegetation where they reside. During the initial decline of the turkey in our country, Florida’s inaccessible swamplands provided refuge for the species while many other states struggled to keep turkey populations viable. However, the Osceola was nevertheless eliminated from portions of the Everglades in the 1900s due to extensive timber harvests and hunting pressure, according to the National Park Service (NPS).

“Wild Turkey and six other upland species disappeared shortly after a dramatic reduction in the area of the Atlantic rock ridge pinelands and extensive logging in the region,” said NPS. “Hunting almost certainly contributed to the turkey’s disappearance because of its establishment as a popular game bird.”

Floridians tried to restore the wild turkey population in the state’s southern end in both the 1940s and 70s. “A cooperative effort to restore the Wild Turkey to Everglades National Park was organized in the fall of 1999 because in addition to hunting now being illegal, a natural fire regime was being restored, and the forests had recovered from logging,” said NPS. In January 2000, 29 turkeys (22 females and seven males) were captured in central southern Florida and released in the Everglades.

Since then, efforts to reintroduce the Osceola into the National Park have had mixed results. Seventy percent of the 29 turkeys died within a year of the release, and the remaining population was very male-heavy. In 2006, 31 more turkeys were released in the park, and while that effort was more successful than the 2000 turkey release, the population is still declining within the Everglades. “Long-term success of the reintroduction will ultimately be determined by the development of a viable self-sustaining population,” said NPS.

In 1985, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Wild Turkey Stamp Act, which required all turkey hunters to buy a permit or license. Revenues helped support wild turkey research and conservation efforts. In Florida, brood considerations and the availability of roosting trees can often be the most limiting factors in determining habitat, though increased urbanization is also responsible for habitat destruction. Given their limited range, unique coloration, and small population size, unregulated hunting pressure could quickly affect the persistence of the subspecies.

Hunting Osceola Wild Turkeys

Fortunately, Florida manages hunting pressure on these turkeys well. Florida has spring (March to April) and fall (zone-dependent season dates) turkey seasons. There is a two-turkey daily bag and season limit on gobblers and bearded turkeys for both spring and fall seasons. The exception is in Holmes County, where the daily bag and season limit is one gobbler or bearded turkey in spring. Always check the most recent Florida hunting regulations for updated rules.

While you can apply for special hunts and limited entry/quota hunts, there are also many public hunting areas where you can pursue turkeys with only an over-the-counter license. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission maintains a list of wildlife management areas where you can find the Osceola subspecies, as well as information to help you get started.

After a successful turkey hunt, hunters must report their harvest to the Florida Wildlife Commission within 24 hours and prior to the final processing of the turkey. It must also be reported before “any parts of it transferred to another party including meat processors and taxidermists, or the wild turkey the state,” according to Florida’s e-regulations. Turkey harvests can be reported online, via phone, or through the Fish/Hunt Florida app. Additionally, before a wild turkey is dismembered and divided between individuals at a hunting camp, each part of the turkey must be labeled with the name, address, FWC customer number, date of harvest, and harvest location.

Spring 2024 Florida Osceola Turkey Hunting Seasons

(Last updated May 4, 2023)

FloridaGeneralNorth of State Road 70 outside of WMA systemMarch 16 – April 21, 20242 bearded*
GeneralSouth of State Road 70 outside of WMA systemMarch 2 – April 7, 2024
Youth**: North of State Road 70March 9-10, 2024
Youth: South of State Road 70Feb. 24-25, 2024
*Holmes County’s daily bag and season limit are 1 bearded turkey. **Youth hunts are for hunters 15 years old or younger. Information was retrieved from the Florida Wildlife Commission website.

Fall 2023 Florida Osceola Turkey Hunting Seasons

(Last updated May 12, 2023)

StateZoneMethodSeason Dates
FloridaZone AArcheryJuly 30 – Aug. 28, 2023
Zone ACrossbowJuly 30 – Sept. 2, 2023
Zone AMuzzleloaderSept. 3–16, 2023
Zone AShotgunOct. 3–16, 2023 &
Nov. 19, 2023 – Jan. 1, 2024
Zone BArcheryOct. 15 – Nov. 13, 2023
Zone BCrossbowOct. 15 – Nov. 18, 2023
Zone BMuzzleloaderNov. 19 – Dec. 2, 2023
Zone BShotgunDec. 3, 2023 – Jan. 29, 2024
Zone CArcherySept. 17 – Oct. 16, 2023
Zone CCrossbowSept. 17 – Oct. 21, 2023
Zone CMuzzleloaderOct. 22 – Nov. 4, 2023
Zone CShotgunNov. 5, 2023 – Jan. 1, 2024
Zone DArcheryOct. 22 – Nov. 23, 2023
Zone DCrossbowOct. 22 – Nov. 23 & Nov. 28 – Dec. 2, 2023
Zone DMuzzleloaderDec. 3–9, 2023
Zone DShotgunNov. 24–27, 2023 & Dec. 10, 2023 – Jan. 15, 2024
*Information retrieved from Florida’s 2023 e-regulations. Daily bag limit is two turkeys. The possession limit is two turkeys for all seasons combined.

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