In the hands of a youth or adult, the single-shot is the original starter shotgun for the uplands and small-game
In this day-and-age the single-shot or single-barrel shotgun is quite possibly the rarest gun carried in the upland fields. To see one carried by any bird hunter would be astonishing. In fact, so infrequently seen the single-shot is almost mythical. In my experiences I have seen . . . one! The last time I encountered a single-shot shotgun was during a hunt with a good friend and his son. Our group was hunting pheasant and bobwhite quail on Kansas public lands in the mid-2000s. My friend’s son carried the small toy-like shotgun proudly as if it were a Holland-and-Holland 12-bore side-by-side.
Once considered the standard for youth, the single-shot shotgun has been overshadowed in popularity by its bigger and faster older brothers, the pump shotgun and semi-autos of the day. In a day where more is considered better, the single-shot is being left behind as a choice for youth and new bird hunters. There may be no better shotgun with which to learn the art of wingshooting. Its simplicity is its own beauty as the single-shot can still bring down feathers.
History of the single shot shotgun
The very history of firearms started with a single-shot design. By the 18th century, shotguns intended for use in wingshooting became known as a fowling piece: a portable firearm for the shooting of birds.
Single-shot shotguns hold only a single shotgun shell round. Once fired, it must be reloaded after each shot. These shotguns have a break-open action in which it connects with the barrel assembly to the breech block with a hinge. When a locking latch is released, the barrel assembly pivots away from the receiver, opening the breech. In some models, opening the action automatically extracts the spent cartridge.
The single-barrel’s popularity as an inexpensive alternative to double-barreled shotguns was because the shotgun did not require the precise aligning of parallel barrels. Because of its very affordable price tag the single-barrel shotgun was often referred to as a “kitchen door gun” or a “farm gun.” Its primary purpose, self-defense.
A great shotgun for youth hunters
I have no idea how many youngsters start out with single-shot shotguns. I would like to ponder that sometime somewhere, fathers probably figured out the single-shot would be the perfect youth shotgun to be carried afield. Thereafter, the single-shot would be a common sight in years past.
The affordable single barrel shotgun brings a lot to the table in the introduction into upland bird hunting. As with other break-action shotguns, safety is the biggest benefit with single-shot shotguns. An open action is a visible sign and indicator to other hunters alike that the shotgun is loaded or unloaded. The safety functions are perfect for beginners.
Many models include a spur hammer, and transfer bar safety action along with an integral system that prevents the action from opening or closing when the hammer is cocked. The shotgun is also lightweight which is an advantage when carried by eager young bird hunters. Single-shot shotguns come in a variety of gauges, from .410 bore up to 10-gauge. It’s easy to maintain and simple to use. Single-shots have no complex reciprocating actions to load and unload shells as with pumps and semi-autos. A new shotgunner could quickly learn how to load, reload, and unload a single-shot break action shotgun in a morning. It is also easy to clean in the field or on the workbench.
The two disadvantages can be worked through. Since single-shots have no action to absorb the force of the recoil, they have the potential to “kick” pretty good. The other downside is the lack of a “quick” follow-up shot by its young carrier experiencing the excitement of a covey flush, cackling rooster, or grouse rocketing through a patch of alders.
Single shot models and brands
Harrington & Richardson Pardner Single-Shot: this model is offered in various gauges with a break-open action, side lever release, and automatic ejection. The Pardner is versatile and economical ($200) and its design has changed little since 1893.
Henry Single-shot: is available in .410, 20- and 12-gauge. With its simple operation and reliable action, it conveys nostalgia when carried. Though a little more expensive at $510, each model is quality made.
Yildiz Single-Barrel: comes in two gauges; 12-gauge and .410 caliber. Its affordable price tag at under $150 makes the shogun an excellent choice for beginners.
Savage 301 Single-shot: Savage Arms went with a synthetic stock or camo model when building this entry level shotgun for around $200.
Iver Johnson Single Shot: These Turkish made shotguns come in 20-gauge and .410 caliber and are available in Youth models and size. MSRP $180.
Discontinued models include CZ Cottontail Single-shot and Rossi.
Stories of single shot shotguns
Below are, a gathering of four colorful narratives from co-workers that I found amusing through my research in the common use of the single-shot shotgun. The tales tell the story and memories afield with their fathers and family members of how the single-shot appears to have been the choice for the young quartet to learn the basics of firearm safety, shotgunning, and wingshooting during the 1970s and ’80s.
Hunting the black devils!
Under his father’s careful eye, Harrison loaded the single-shot. The single-shot Rossi gently snapped closed. A lone yellow 3-inch shell in its chamber. Half-a-box of shells sat in Harrison’s camouflaged coat, the rest carried by his father. The “Black Devils” could be heard in the distance. Soon a dark flying shadow overhead was quickly identified as the scout and shot as it veered too close to the decoys. With no scout to report back, other crows began to fly in to investigate only to fly off.
The barrel quickly made its way upward between two branches from out of the makeshift blind and fired. Harrison hit the black licorice colored crow as the murder (a flock of crows) flew away. The black birds had noisily come into investigate why the “scout’ had not returned. It laid motionless not far from the decoys.
Harrison held the crow, examining his first bird. Mark, Harrison’s father, said “H” had a big smile across his face. It didn’t matter that Harrison’s first bird was a crow. Trophies come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and species and for Harrison to do it using a single-shot was even more impressive.
Harrison had received his single-shot shotgun, a Rossi for his eighth birthday. His father felt the other “youth” model shotguns available were still too cumbersome and wanted something Harrison could comfortably and safely manipulate (load, unload, shoulder, fire) and carry, the Rossi fit the description. The Rossi’s built-in safety features, affordability, and capable knock-down power would be enough to hunt pheasant and quail with “dad.”
Harrison’s at home safety classes consisted of practicing loading, unloading, carrying, and cocking the hammer and firing (using snap caps). He was expected to be proficient while maintaining muzzle awareness. To Mark, it was an easy decision to go with the single-shot for his son. The shotgun allowed Harrison to participate safely in his father’s bird hunting quests. The single-shot made Harrison one of the “guys” in the field. His excitement and happiness as he carried the shotgun was forever etched into his father’s memory.
At 12 years old, Mike greatly disapproved of his father’s direction to carry the Winchester Model 37 12-gauge given to him by his grandfather, “open” in the Iowa fields. His argument was that he would be at a disadvantage if a rooster flushed, as everyone else carried pump shotguns. After each shot, an outreached hand with a singular shell from Mike’s father would be there to replace the spent shell. Through time and lots of missed ring-neck pheasants, Mike eventually became very efficient at closing the action and firing. “I killed many a rooster with that single-barreled shotgun.”
Mike was given the single-shot for many reasons, but the main one was for the mere safety factor behind the functionality of the single-barrel offered. Mike carried the single-shot for years until transitioning to a repeating shotgun. He wanted more shells to fire. Mike kept the shotgun, whereas in time he eventually handed it down to his son for the same reasons his was given to him. And yes, Mike also made his son carry the single-shot with the action open when hunting.
I’ll trade ya a dog for the shotgun
Before the old H&R Pardner 20-gauge single-shot made its way into Brett’s 11-year-old hands, it was carried in the Missouri woods by his grandfather. Brett recalls his grandfather being very efficient at killing small-game. The accomplished hunter carried shells between his index, middle, and ring fingers for quick reloads. He could shoot and quickly insert another shell for a quick follow-up shot.
Brett’s grandfather came into the possession of the Pardner in a rather peculiar way. See, in southern Missouri it was and still is very common to trade. One day he put together a deal that included the bartering of one of his well-known hunting dogs for the H&R single-shot.
The Trading Post as it is referred to, allowed the trading of things or services. This “trading” was often done with CB radios and the local radio station. The single-shot must have caught Brett’s grandfather’s eye as he was willing to give up a dog!
When the time came, Brett’s father knew the single-shot to be the perfect shotgun for a young boy to start out with. Never having fired a shotgun, Brett was afraid. However, its ease of use, reliability, and fairly-small profile made the single-shot a perfect choice. Quail was becoming scarce and pheasant numbers were low in Missouri during the time Brett used the shotgun, but not for the lack of trying. The Pardner was on loan to Brett, and after years of service it soon gave way to yet again a shotgun that held more shells.
Family tradition and a mason jar full of shells
“I’ll take $25 dollars for the Harrington & Richards .410 single-shot shotgun” is probably how the scenario unfolded. Thrown in with the purchase to sweeten the deal was a mason jar full of shells. Justin was 10 years old when he received his shotgun from his older brother’s friend. Justin says in the beginning only tail feathers were evidence of his marksmanship and enjoyed the time spent hunting with his father hunting Central Missouri. Ironically, Justin’s dad had also started out with a single-shot H&R 20-gauge.
The use of a single-shot goes back even farther in Justin’s family tree, as he recalls stories of his great-grandfather hunting with a single-barreled shotgun, too. He was known to be a “great shot” and carried an extra shell in his off-hand for quick reloads. Justin’s father recalls seeing his granddad shoot two quail in one covey rise on more than one occasion. For shooting a single-shot, Justin’s grandfather apparently enjoyed shooting “doubles!”
Timeless use of the single shot shotgun
The single-shot clearly is the shotgun of choice for youth and beginners. In this day and age when the ability to carry and shoot more is better, the single-shot takes many back to a time when things were a lot simpler. Fathers, grandfathers, and uncles walking along with sons and daughters doling out ammo teaches the new hunter to be careful, patient, and precise in their shots – basic principles that ALL bird hunters need to know and adhere to. If only for old times’ sake, how grand would it be to see more young bird hunters traipsing across the uplands with a single-shot shotgun behind a pair of bird dogs walking along a weedy fence row. Images such as these would be like stepping back in time.
There is no denying that the timeless single shot break-open breech design in single barrel shotguns are still capable enough to bring down upland birds, from quail to ruffs. Those older single-shots still pack enough oomph to bring a smile to a youngster toting their first shotgun–a benefit still retained by newer single-shots with updated modern safety features. I can bet that whatever youth carries the single-shot in a field or covert, they will not be prouder of their shotgun than if carrying anything else. It’s in how the youth are taught that they will come to understand that carrying the single-shot is a shotgun worthy for the uplands.
Edgar Castillo is a recently retired law enforcement officer for a large Kansas City metropolitan agency. He also served in the United States Marine Corps for twelve years. Edgar longs for the colors of autumn and frosty, winter days so he can explore the landscapes in search of wild birds in wild places. His passion lies in the uplands as he self-documents his travels across public lands throughout Kansas hunting open fields, walking treelines, & bustin’ through plum thickets.